Well, it happened to me before, but of course it was already such a long time ago that the solution was only passively available in my brain. So I imported a bunch of products (again). But this time all the products that I had imported disappeared. I checked the database, but the products were there. How to deal with this?
I could not find much about it on the internet, but after reading Uploaded products do not show on front end, my brain started working again and I thought: "Eureka! It has to be the locale setting of the backend" (which I fageuly remember being changed after installing locale files). Unfortunately Magento's import functionality uses a text value for some fields. Depending on the configured locale different texts are used for the same values. So, if you have an import that works on one locale (let's say en_US), then it most probably will not work using another locale (and actually break the site in a very unprofessional way).
Hopefully this post will be able to help some other Magenteers, good luck and may the force be with you!